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by Mark Warschauer

Reprinted with permission of Logos Internationa l. Please cite as: Warschauer M. (1996) "Computer Assisted Language Learning: an Introduction". In Fotos S. (ed.) Multimedia language teaching , Tokyo: Logos International: 3-20.

We are grateful to Mark Warschauer for allowing us to reproduce this article at the ICT4LT site. The article has an important place in the History of CALL , which we cover in Tods Metallic RoundToe Flats Clearance Recommend rb7fA
at the ICT4LT site, and it is especially relevant to the various attempts to document a CALL typology and Phases of CALL , which we cover in Section 3, Module 1.4 .

ICT4LT Editor's Note: External links in this article are regularly checked by Graham Davies, Editor of the ICT4LT website, and amended where necessary. A number of notes containing updated information and internal links to other sections of the ICT4LT site have also been inserted.

Links checked 27 February 2012

Until quite recently, computer-assisted language learning (CALL) was a topic of relevance mostly to those with a special interest in that area. Recently, though, computers have become so widespread in schools and homes and their uses have expanded so dramatically that the majority of language teachers must now begin to think about the implications of computers for language learning.

This article provides brief overview of how computers have been used and are being used for language teaching. It focuses not on a technical description of hardware and software, but rather on the pedagogical questions that teachers have considered in using computers in the classroom. For those who want more detailed information on particular applications, a typology of CALL programs (Appendix A) and a list of further CALL resources Sonia Rykiel Fringe PeepToe Pumps Cheap 2018 Clearance Latest Collections Amazon Cheap Price igGJHw
is included at the end.

Though CALL has developed gradually over the last 30 years, this development can be categorized in terms of three somewhat distinct phases which I will refer to as behavioristic CALL , communicative CALL , and integrative CALL (cf. Tory Burch Regan Platform Wedge Sandals Discounts Online Store Cheap Price Huge Surprise With Credit Card For Sale Cheap Sale 2018 v7JEJgAoc
). As we will see, the introduction of a new phase does not necessarily entail rejecting the programs and methods of a previous phase; rather the old is subsumed within the new. In addition, the phases do not gain prominence one fell swoop, but, like all innovations, gain acceptance slowly and unevenly. [ ICT4LT Editor's Note: See Section 3, Module 1.4 , where CALL typology and Phases of CALL are discussed further.]

The first phase of CALL, conceived in the 1950s and implemented in the 1960s and '70s, was based on the then-dominant behaviorist theories of learning. Programs of this phase entailed repetitive language drills and can be referred to as "drill and practice" (or, more pejoratively, as "drill and kill").

The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats

Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats . However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938545

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Guerrero-Juarez, Christian F; Astrowski, Aliaksandr A; Murad, Rabi; Dang, Christina T; Shatrova, Vera O; Astrowskaja, Aksana; Lim, Chae Ho; Ramos, Raul; Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Yuchen; Lee, Hye-Lim; Pham, Kim T; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Oh, Ji Won; Crocker, Daniel; Mortazavi, Ali; Ito, Mayumi; Plikus, Maksim V

2018-06-01

Large excisional wounds in mice prominently regenerate new hair follicles (HFs) and fat, yet humans are deficient for this regenerative behavior. Currently, wound-induced regeneration remains a clinically desirable, but only partially understood phenomenon. We show that large excisional wounds in rats across seven strains fail to regenerate new HFs. We compared wound transcriptomes between mice and rats at the time of scab detachment, which coincides with the onset of HF regeneration in mice. In both species, wound dermis and epidermis share core dermal and epidermal transcriptional programs, respectively, yet prominent interspecies differences exist. Compared with mice, rat epidermis expresses distinct transcriptional and epigenetic factors, markers of epidermal repair, hyperplasia, and inflammation, and lower levels of WNT signaling effectors andÂregulators. When recombined on the surface of excisional wounds with vibrissa dermal papillae, partial-thickness skin grafts containing distal pelage HF segments, but not interfollicular epidermis, readily regenerated new vibrissa-like HFs. Together, our findings establish rats as a nonregenerating rodent model for excisional wound healing and suggest that low epidermal competence and associated transcriptional profile may contribute to its regenerative deficiency. Future comparison between rat and mouse may lend further insight into the mechanism of wounding-induced regeneration and causes for its deficit. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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